Surveying is process which measures the dimension of an object that generally present on the surface of the Earth. The gear which are used frequently for surveying involves levels and theodolites. These are employed for precise or precise measurement of angles, horizontal, vertical and slope distances. With the improvement of computer based technology such as electronic distance measurement (EDM), total stations, Geographic Positioning Systems (GPS) the conventional optical instruments have been replaced. Even though, Land Surveying is typical to all types of surveying, there are noticeable variations amongst land surveying and construction surveying.
Land Surveying Vs Construction Surveying
In several countries, Land Surveying is considered to be a distinguishable profession. For instance, Land Surveyors have their own skilled associations and licensing criteria. The licensed land surveyor performs boundary surveys and subdivision plans. Whereas construction surveying is typically performed by specialized nicely educated technicians. When compared with the land surveyors, the plans ready by the construction surveyors do not have surveying instruments legal status.
Principal functions or activity under construction surveying are as follows:
? Surveying of current ground conditions of new construction website. This will cover, topography of site, measuring and recording the situation of current buildings and infrastructure. Similarly measuring invert levels and dimensions of sewers and manholes that comes underground infrastructure.
? Setting-out or layout of proposed constructing site, and creating place. Fixing of datums or reference or manage points that will guide the construction of new structures such constructing, roads, canals and sewers, etc.
Also, the construction surveying will guarantee that there will not be key deviations from the planned building based on the established reference points and markers. For example, the reference points or markers are established according to an arbitrary coordinates system. The continuous monitoring based on the reference points and base lines, the construction surveyor confirm the place of structures whilst construction and do the necessary correction if required.
? Preparation of As-Constructed surveying instruments Plans to make sure that the construction project or the constructing project was done according to the approved regional authority drawings, specifications and regulations.
The Building Surveying wants coordinate Program. For instance,
Arbitrary Coordinates based on Geodesic Coordinates
In the course of building surveying it is common to use arbitrary construction coordinate technique. The arbitrary coordinate program is derived from the geodesic coordinates.
In the case of linear measurements (of roads, buildings) usually a chainage or distance will be established from fixed based line such as the center line of the road. Throughout construction, the creating or other structures will be positioned with respect to chainage, offset, elevations, and so on.
Constructing Axes are also have to be established in the case of building of buildings. These axes are frequently fixed along the building column or foundation grids or main load bearing walls.
In building or constructing projects an arbitrary reference lines may be established either north-south or east-west directions. It may possibly not necessarily be primarily based on correct surveying instruments coordinates.